Behavioral finance is an essential field that explores the intersection of human psychology and financial decision-making. Recognizing these biases is crucial for investors because these psychological tendencies can cloud judgment, lead to flawed reasoning, and result in sub-optimal financial decisions. For instance, investors may hold onto underperforming assets due to loss aversion or might overtrade because of overconfidence, both of which can erode investment returns.

Moreover, biases can prevent investors from seeing the bigger picture. For example, anchoring bias could cause an investor to fixate on irrelevant or outdated data, missing out on new investment opportunities. Herding bias might lead an investor to follow popular market trends without considering their own financial goals or risk tolerance, potentially resulting in a mismatched investment strategy.

By becoming aware of these cognitive biases, investors can start to identify when they might be falling into these psychological traps. This awareness allows for more thoughtful, deliberate decision-making, enabling investors to challenge their own preconceptions and to make decisions based on sound analysis rather than emotional reactions. Ultimately, understanding and mitigating these biases is a practical tool that may improve investment outcomes. Below you will find some of the most common biases that are displayed by investors and the rationale into their thinking.

  1. Anchoring Bias: Anchoring bias refers to an investor’s tendency to base decisions on irrelevant or obsolete figures and trends they consider as benchmarks. For example, an investor might fixate on the price they initially paid for a stock and base their selling decision on this price, ignoring current market conditions. This can lead to holding on to investments longer than necessary, potentially resulting in a loss.
  2. Reference Point Bias: Is a form of Anchoring Bias that can distort an investor’s perception of gains and losses. It involves setting a specific reference point, typically the highest value an investment has reached, and evaluating all future outcomes relative to this point. For instance, an investor who bought a stock at $100 that later rose to $150 may consider this high point as the new reference point. If the stock value then declines to $130, they might perceive this as a loss of $20, despite still being $30 above their original investment. This misperception can drive hasty selling decisions in fear of further ‘losses’, or lead to holding on in hopes of the stock returning to the high point, potentially ignoring important changes in market conditions.
  1. Confirmation Bias: This bias occurs when investors seek out and validate their investment decisions using information that aligns with their beliefs and ignores contradictory data. Such a narrow perspective can restrict diversification and expose the investment portfolio to undue risk.
  2. Herding Bias: Herding bias refers to investors following popular trends or mimicking the decisions of successful investors. This can lead to asset bubbles or crashes, as it fuels excessive optimism or panic selling.
  3. Overconfidence Bias: Overconfidence bias happens when an investor places too much faith in their own skills and knowledge, underestimating the risk involved. Overconfident investors may overlook important information, leading to poor decision-making.
  4. Loss Aversion: Investors affected by loss aversion tend to be more concerned about potential losses than equivalent gains. This bias can prevent investors from selling losing investments to offset gains, or it could lead to selling winning investments too soon to realize gains, thereby missing out on further potential profits.
  5. Recency Bias: This bias causes investors to emphasize recent events over historical ones in their decision-making process. Investors might predict the future performance of an investment based on its most recent performance, leading to incorrect assumptions and potentially detrimental investment decisions.
  6. Hindsight Bias: Hindsight bias involves viewing past events as if they were predictable at the time. This can lead investors to believe that they can predict future market events with the same clarity, leading to overconfidence and potential investment mistakes.
  7. Mental Accounting Bias: This bias refers to the tendency of investors to segregate money into separate mental accounts based on various subjective criteria, like the source of the money or the intended use for each account. For instance, they might take more risk with “bonus” money because they consider it “extra”. This can lead to irrational decision-making and an ineffective allocation of resources.
  8. Cognitive Dissonance Bias: Cognitive dissonance is a psychological discomfort that individuals experience when they hold conflicting beliefs or when their actions contradict their beliefs. Investors may ignore or downplay new information that contradicts previous decisions to reduce this discomfort. This bias can prevent investors from correcting their mistakes, often leading to potential financial loss.
  9. Illusion of Control Bias: This bias occurs when investors believe they have more control over events than they truly do. They might overestimate their ability to influence outcomes, leading to overconfidence. This illusory control can cause investors to underestimate risk and potentially make imprudent investment choices.
  10. Paradox of Choice/Fear of Regret: Too many investment choices can lead to analysis paralysis, where investors struggle to make a decision, fearing they’ll make the wrong one. They might also feel dissatisfaction with their choice, even if it’s a good one, because they constantly compare it to the alternatives they rejected.
  11. Endowment or Attachment Bias: This bias refers to investors’ tendency to hold onto assets they have inherited or owned for a long time. They may do so for sentimental reasons or to avoid the transaction costs associated with selling the asset, regardless of whether the investment fits their strategy or has the potential for future gains. As a result, they may maintain an unbalanced or inappropriate portfolio. Understanding endowment bias can encourage investors to evaluate inherited or long-held investments more objectively, ensuring they align with their overall investment goals and strategy.
  12. Self-Affirmation Bias:  This occurs when an investor takes credit for wins, holding the belief that smart decision making influenced the outcome, but then blaming external factors for losses or bad luck for losses. This results, again, in overconfidence and ignoring past mistakes.

By recognizing and understanding these biases, investors can take steps to mitigate their effects. It’s beneficial to practice self-awareness, seek diverse perspectives, and consider the assistance of a financial advisor to make sound investment decisions. These biases can significantly affect investment performance and understanding them is a crucial step towards more effective, less biased decision-making.


Babb Wealth Advisors is an SEC registered adviser and provides investment advice in those states in which it is appropriately registered. *Past performance is not a guarantee of future results. Indices are not available for direct investment; therefore, their performance does not reflect the expenses associated with the management of an actual portfolio. Short term performance results should be considered in connection with longer term performance results.